This is about as arcane as it gets . . . “Articles”. Be that as it may, we’re stuck with it as a word in corporate lingo. This is the document which provides the state, and therefore the public, with the initial information needed to bring the corporation into existence. It must follow certain state requirements minimally, and may also contain certain other provisions that may either be recommended generally, or may be required by certain investors. Sometimes this is referred to as the “corporate charter”.
Should you? Probably not. Are you required to? Maybe. It depends on the type of profession you’re in. Lawyers, for example, are required to be in professional corporations (“PC”). Forming as a PC may require additional restrictions in your bylaws, for example concerning ownership. So if you don’t need to, generally you shouldn’t. But you may not have a choice.
This is the person who signs and causes the filing of the Articles of Incorporation (or, in the case of an LLC the Articles of Organization) with the designated state authority. In a small business, this is usually the owner/shareholder/member. Some folks have their attorney sign the documents to help expedite the process, and that’s ok (but not necessary).